Loading articles...

Key events in India-Pakistan relations since Partition

Last Updated Aug 11, 2017 at 12:20 am PST

n this May 30, 1999, file photo, Indian army soldiers fire artillery in the northernmost part of the Kargil region, located some 225 kilometers (140 miles) north of Srinagar, India. Conflict erupted in Kargil as Pakistani forces and Kashmiri fighters occupied Himalayan peaks. India launched air and ground strikes. (AP Photo/Aijaz Rahi, File)

India and Pakistan have had testy relations at best since independence. Some key dates that helped define the South Asian nations:

August 1947 – Britain ends its colonial rule over the Indian subcontinent, which becomes two independent nations — Hindu-majority, but secularly governed India and the Islamic republic of Pakistan. The division, widely known as Partition, sparks massive rioting that kills up to 1 million, while another 15 million flee their homes in one of the world’s largest human migrations.

October 1947 – The two young nations begin a war over control of Kashmir, a Muslim-majority kingdom ruled by a Hindu maharaja. A U.N.-brokered cease-fire ends the war in a year with Kashmir divided between them.

January 1949 – India and Pakistan agree to a U.N. Security Council resolution calling for a referendum in which Kashmiris would determine their future; the vote never takes place.

September 1960 – India and Pakistan sign a World Bank-brokered Indus Water Treaty governing six rivers, or three rivers each. It is the only India-Pakistan treaty that has held.

August 1965 – A second war begins over Kashmir, ending a month later in another U.N.-mandated ceasefire.

December 1971 – A third war is fought, this time as India supports secessionists in East Pakistan. The war ends with the creation of Bangladesh.

July 1972 – The countries’ prime ministers sign an accord for the return of tens of thousands of Pakistani prisoners of war.

May 1974 – India conducts a nuclear test, becoming the first nation to do so that’s not a permanent U.N. Security Council member.

December 1989 – Armed resistance to Indian rule in Kashmir begins. India accuses Pakistan of giving weapons and training to the fighters. Pakistan says it offers only “moral and diplomatic” support.

May 1998 – India detonates five nuclear devices in tests. Pakistan detonates six. Both are slapped with international sanctions.

February 1999 – Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee rides a bus to the Pakistani city of Lahore to meet with Pakistan counterpart, Nawaz Sharif, and sign a major peace accord.

May 1999 – Conflict erupts in Kargil as Pakistani forces and Kashmiri fighters occupy Himalayan peaks. India launches air and ground strikes. The U.S. brokers peace.

May 2001 – Vajpayee and Pakistan’s President Pervez Musharraf meet in the Indian city of Agra, but reach no agreements.

October 2001 – Insurgents attack the legislature building in Indian-controlled Kashmir, killing 38 people.

December 2001 – Gunmen attack India’s Parliament, killing 14. India blames militant groups Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad, and deploys troops to its western frontier with Pakistan. The standoff ends in October 2002 after international mediation.

January 2004 – Musharraf and Vajpayee hold talks, launching bilateral negotiations to settle outstanding issues.

February 2007 – A train service between India and Pakistan, the Samjhauta Express, is bombed in northern India, killing 68.

October 2008 – India and Pakistan open a trade route across divided Kashmir for the first time in six decades.

November 2008 – Gunmen attack Mumbai, killing 166 people. India blames a Pakistan-based militant group.

May 2014 – India’s new Prime Minister Narendra Modi invites Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif to New Delhi for his inauguration.

December 2015 – Modi makes a surprise visit to the Pakistani city of Lahore on Sharif’s birthday and the wedding of his granddaughter.

January 2016 – Six gunmen attack an Indian air force base in the northern town of Pathankot, killing seven soldiers in a battle that lasted nearly four days.

July 2016 – Indian soldiers kill Kashmiri rebel leader Burhan Wani, sparking months of anti-India protests and deadly clashes in the region.

September 2016 – Suspected rebels sneak into an Indian army base in Kashmir and kill 18 soldiers. Four attackers are also killed.

___

This story has been corrected to show the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 governs six rivers, or three rivers each, not three total.